Ada - DoD HOLWG, Col Wm Whitaker, 1993
This history would not have been possible without the help of John Walker of the IIT Research Institute at the AJPO. He found the source documents that were needed to assure the accuracy of the paper. I also received invaluable comments and help from Jean E. Sammet and Anthony Gargaro, and from the anonymous reviewers who made suggestions resulting in enormous improvements in the paper.
Ada PROJECT MILESTONES Figure 14
|Formation of HOLWG--||JAN 75|
|STRAWMAN Issued--||APR 75|
|WOODENMAN Issued--||AUG 75|
|TINMAN Issued--||JAN 76|
|DoDD 5000.29--||APR 76|
|DDR&E Directs Service Funding--||MAY 76|
|DoDI 5000.31--||NOV 76|
|Languages Evaluation Completed--||DEC 76|
|Program Management Plan--||JAN 77|
|Report of Evaluation--||JAN 77|
|IRONMAN Issued--||JAN 77|
|Final SOW for Design--||MAR 77|
|RFP Issued--||APR 77|
|Revised IRONMAN Issued--||JUL 77|
|Design Contracts Awarded--||AUG 77|
|Economic Analyses--||JAN 77 - NOV 77|
|Language Design - Phase I--||SEP 77 - FEB 78|
|Language Design Evaluation--||MAR 78 - APR 78.|
|Select contractors to Continue--||APR 78|
|STEELMAN Issued--||JUN 78|
|Program Decision Date--||APR 78|
|Language Design - Phase II--||MAY 78 - FEB 79|
|PEBBLEMAN Issued--||JUL 78|
|PEBBLEMAN Revised Issued--||JAN 79|
|Final Selection--||MAY 79|
|Test & Evaluation--||MAY 79 - SEP 79|
|Preliminary Ada published--||JUN 79|
|MIL-STD 1815--||DEC 80|
|STONEMAN Issued--||FEB 80|
|ANSI/MIL-STD 1815A--||FEB 83|
|First 1815A validation--||APR 83|
|DeLauer mandate for Ada--||JUN 83|
|ISO Standard 8652--||JUN 87|
|Ada 9X Revision process initiated--||SEP 88|
- Documents with AD number are available from the Defense Technical Information Center or the National Technical Information Service.
- [ACM, 1980]
- Proceedings - ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on the Ada Programming Language, Boston. MA, December 9-11, 1980, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 15, No. 11, November 1980.
- [ACM, 1981]
- ACM Ada Letters, (1981 and continuing), previously Ada Implementor's Newsletter (from 1979).
- [Ada, 1979a]
- Preliminary Ada Reference Manual, SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 14, No. 6A, June 1979,AD-A071 761.
- [Ada, 1979b]
- Rationale for the Design of the Ada Programming Language, SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 14, No. 6B, June 1979, AD-A073 854.
- [Ada, 1983]
- ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A-1983, Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language, 1983, AD-A131 511.
- [AFATL, 1978]
- Report of the Eglin Workshop on Common Compiler Technology, AFTAL, 28 September 1978
- [Berning, 1980]
- Berning, Paul. T. Formal SEMANOL Specification of Ada, Rome Air Development Center Report RADC-TR-80-293, September 1980, AD-A091 682.
- [Bjorner, 1980]
- Bjorner, D., Oest, O. N., Towards a formal definition of Ada, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 98, Springer-Verlag, 1980
- [Botta, 1987]
- Botta, N., Pertersen, J. Storbank, The Draft Formal Definition of Ada, The Static Semantics Definition, Vol 1-4 Jan 87, Dansk Datamatik Center, Lyngby, Denmark
- [Bowden, 1953]
- Bowden, B. V., Faster Than Thought, London: Pitman, 1953.
- [CAIS, 1983]
- Draft Specification of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS), Version 1.0, prepared by KIT/KITIA Working Group for Ada JPO, 26 August 1983.
- [CAIS, 1986]
- DOD-STD-1838 Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS), October, 1986.
- [Carlson, 1980]
- Carlson, W. E., Druffel, L. E., Fisher, D. A., Whitaker, W. A., Introducing Ada, in Proceedings of the 1980 ACM Annual Conference, ACM, pp. 27-29, October 1980.
- [Clapp, 1977]
- Clapp, Judy A., Loebenstein, E., Rhymer, P., A Cost/Benefit Analysis of High Order Language Standardization, M78-206, The MITRE Corporation, September 1977.
- [Cohen, 1981]
- Cohen, Paul M., From HOLWG to AJPO -- Ada in Transition, Ada Joint Program Office, (internal document), 1981.
- [Currie, 1975a]
- Currie, Malcolm R., DoD Higher Order Programming Language, Memorandum from Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington, DC, 28 January 1975. Figure1 of this paper.
- [Currie, 1975b]
- Currie, Malcolm R., DoD Higher Order Programming Language Working Group, Memorandum from Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington, DC, 2 May 1975. Figure 2 of this paper.
- [Currie, 1976]
- Currie, Malcolm R., DoD High Order Language Program, Memorandum from Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington, DC, 10 May 1976. Figure 3 of this paper.
- [Dausmann, 1980]
- Dausmann, M., Drossopoulou, S., Goos, G., Persch, G., and Winterstein, G., AIDA Reference Manual (Preliminary Draft), Institut fur Informatick II, University of Karlsruhe, Report 2/80, 4 February 1980.
- [DeLauer, 1983]
- DeLauer, Richard D., Interim DoD Policy on Computer Programming Languages, Memorandum from Undersecretary of Defense (Research and Engineering), Washington, DC, 10 June 1983.
- [Dewar, 1983]
- Dewar, R., Froelich, R. M., Fisher, G. A., Kruchten, P., An Executable Semantic Model for Ada, Ada/Ed Interpreter, Ada Project, Courant Institute New York University, 1983
- [DIANA, 1981]
- Diana Reference Manual, Institut fur Informatik II, Universitat Karlsruhe and Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University; Report 1/81, March 1981.
- [DIANA, 1983]
- Evans, Jr., Arthur, Butler, Kenneth J., DIANA (Descriptive Intermediate Attribute Notation for Ada) Reference Manual, Revision 3, 1983, AD-A128 232.
- [DIANA, 1986]
- McKinley, Kathryn L., and Schaefer, Carl F., DIANA Reference Manual, Revision 4, Intermetrics, Inc, IR-MD-078, May 1986.
- [DoD, 1976b]
- Department of Defense Directive 5000.29, Management of Computer Resources in Major Defense Systems, 26 April 1976.
- [DoD, 1976c]
- Department of Defense Instruction 5000.31, Interim List of DoD High Order Programming Languages (HOL), 24 November 1976.
- [Donzeau-Gouge, 1979]
- Donzeau-Gouge, Veronoque, Kahn, G., Lang, B., Green Language, A Formal Definition, Honeywell, Cii Honeywell Bull, INRIA, 1979, ADA058 047.
- [Donzeau-Gouge, 1980]
- Donzeau-Gouge, Veronoque, Kahn, G., Lang, B., Formal Definition of the Ada Programming Language, Honeywell, Cii Honeywell Bull, INRIA, 1980.
- [Duncan, 1979a]
- Ducan, C. W. Jr., Letter from Deputy Secretary of Defense, Washington, DC, 14 May 1979. Figure 5 of this paper.
- [Duncan, 1979b]
- Ducan, C. W. Jr., Letter from Deputy Secretary of Defense to The Earl of Lytton, Washington, DC, 14 May 1979. Figure 8 of this paper.
- [Fisher, 1974]
- Fisher, David A., Automatic Data Processing Costs in the Defense Department, Paper P-1046, Institute for Defense Analyses, October 1974, AD-A004 841.
- [Fisher, 1978a]
- Fisher, D. A. and Wetherall, P. R., Rationale for Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Computation Requirements for a Common Programming Language, Institute for Defense Analyses, Report IDA-P-1305, January 1978.
- [Fox, 1978]
- Fox, Joseph M., Benefit Model for High Order Language, Decisions and Designs Incorporated, TR78-2-72, March 1978.
- [Giovini, 1987]
- Giovini, Alessandro, Mazzanti, Franco, Reggio, Gianna, and Zucca, Elena, The Draft Formal Definition of Ada, The Dynamic Semantics Definition, Current Algebra, Vol 4 Dec 86, Dansk Datamatik Center, Lyngby, Denmark
- [Goodenough, 1980]
- Goodenough, John, The Ada compilation validation capability, in Proceedings - ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on the Ada Programming Language, Boston, MA, December 9-11, 1980, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 15, No. 11, November 1980, pp. 1-8.
- [HOLWG, 1975a]
- "STRAWMAN" Requirements for a DoD High Order Programming Language, February 1975.
- [HOLWG, 1975b]
- "WOODENMAN" Set of Criteria and Needed Characteristics for a Common DoD Programming Language, David A. Fisher, IDA, 13 August 1975.
- [HOLWG, 1976]
- Department of Defense Requirements for High Order Computer Programming Languages "TINMAN", June 1976.
- [HOLWG, 1977a]
- Amoroso, S., Wegner, P., Morris, D., White, D., Loper, W., Cambell, W., Showalter, C., Language Evaluation Coordinating Committee Report to the High Order Language Working Group (HOLWG), 14 January 1977, AD-A037 634.
- Department of Defense Requirements for High Order Computer Programming Languages "IRONMAN", January 1977.
- [HOLWG, 1977c]
- High Order Language Working Group, Studies of the Economic Implications of Alternatives in the DoD High Order Commonality Effort, Internal Study, 1977.
- [HOLWG, 1977d]
- Department of Defense Requirements for High Order Computer Programming Languages "IRONMAN" Revised, July 1977.
- [HOLWG, 1978a]
- HOLWG, DoD High Order Language Commonality Effort - Design, Phase I Report and Analyses, June 1978, AD-B950 587.
- [HOLWG, 1978b]
- Department of Defense Requirements for High Order Computer Programming Languages "STEELMAN", June 1978, AD-A059 444.
- [HOLWG, 1978c]
- Department of Defense Requirements for the Programming Environment for the Common High Order Language "PEBBLEMAN", July 1978.
- [HOLWG, 1979a]
- Department of Defense Requirements for the Programming Environment for the Common High Order Language "PEBBLEMAN" Revised, January 1979.
- [HOLWG, 1979b]
- Test and Evaluation Newsletter Number 1; 25 May 1979; also in SIGPLAN Notices September 1979, pp. 77-80.
- [HOLWG, 1979c]
- Ada Test and Evaluation Workshop (Proceedings), DARPA and MIT Laboratory for Computer Science; 23-26 October 1979.
- [HOLWG, 1980a]
- HOLWG, DoD High Order Language Commonality Effort - Ada Design, Phase II Reports and Analyses, January 1980, ADA-80-1-M or AD-A141 817 (available only from DTIC).
- [HOLWG, 1980b]
- DoD Requirements for Ada Programming Support Environments, "STONEMAN", February 1980, AD-A100 404.
- [Ichbiah, 1987]
- Ichbiah, Jean D., Barnes, John G. P., Firth, Robert J., Woodger, Mike, Rationale for the Design of the Ada Programming Language, Honeywell, 1987, AD-A187 106.
- [IEEE, 1985]
- ANSI/IEEE Std 754-1985, IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, New York; IEEE, 1985 (Reaffirmed 1991).
- [IEEE, 1987]
- ANSI/IEEE Std 990-1987, IEEE Recommended Practice for Ada As a Program Design Language, New York: IEEE, 1987
- [Lytton, 1978]
- Lytton, Letter to Philip Wetherall from The Earl of Lytton, Keeper Knight's, Pound Hill, Crawley, Sussex, England, 18 October 1978. Figure 7 of this paper.
- [Monterey, 1973]
- Proceedings of a Symposium on the High Cost of Software Held at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey California on September 17-19, 1973, SRI Project 3272, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, September 1973.
- [Moore, 1977]
- Moore, Doris Langley-Levy, Ada, Countess of Lovelace: Byron's Legitimate Daughter, London: Murray, 1977.
- [Morrison, 1961]
- Morrison, P. and E., Charles Babbage and His Calculating Engines, New York: Dover, 1961.
- [Nielsen, 1987]
- Nielsen, C. Bendix, Karlsen, E. W., The Draft Formal Definition of Ada, The Dynamic Semantics Definition, Vol 1-3 Jan 87, Dansk Datamatik Center, Lyngby, Denmark
- [Newcomer, 1979]
- Newcomer, J. M., Lamb, D. A., Leverett, B. W., Levine, D., Reiner, A. H., Tighe, M., and Wulf, W. A., TCOL-Ada; Revised Report on an Intermediate Representation for the DoD Standard Programming Language, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, Report CMU-CS-79-128, 20 June 1979.
- [Oberndorf, 1983]
- Oberndorf, Patricia, Kernel Ada Program Support Environment (KAPSE) Interface Team, Public Report, Report NOSC/TD-552, October 1983, Volume 1, AD-A115 590, Volume 2, AD-A123 136, Volume 3, AD-A141 576.
- [Perry, 1978]
- Perry, William J., DoD High Order Language Commonality Program, Memorandum from Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington, DC, 11 April 1978. Figure 4 of this paper.
- [SAMSO, 1972]
- Information Processing/Data Automation Implication of Air Force Command and Control Requirements in the 1980s (CCIP-85), Volume 4, Technology Trends: Software, SAMSO-TR-72-122- V-4, AD-919-267L.
- [Shaw, 1978]
- Shaw, M., Hilfinger, P., and Wulf, W. A., TARTAN--Language Design for the Ironman Requirement; Notes and Examples, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, Report CMU-CS-78-133, June 1978, AD-A062 856/0.
- [Standish, 1978]
- Standish, Thomas, Proceedings of the Irvine Workshop on Alternatives for the Environment, Certification, and Control of the DoD Common High Order Language, Held at University of California, Irvine on 20-22 June 1978, Report UCI-ICS-78-83, AD-A089 090.
- [Stein, 1985]
- Stein, Dorothy, Ada: A Life and a Legacy, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1985, ISBN 0-262-19242-X.
- [Wetherall, 1978]
- Wetherall, Phillip R., Letter to The Earl of Lytton, Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Great MAlvern, Worcs, England, 10 October 1978. Figure 6 of this paper.
- [Wentworth, 1938]
- Wentworth, Lady, Thoroughbred Racing Stock and its Ancestors: The Authentic Origin of Pure Blood, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1938 (has the real story on horses that Bowen mistook).
- [Whitaker, 1977]
- Whitaker, William A., The US Department of Defense Common High Order Language Effort, SIGPLAN Notices, February 1977.
- [Whitaker, 1983]
- Whitaker, William A., Three Ada Examples, in COMPCON 83, 26th IEEE Computer Society International Conference, 1983, p. 355-359.
- [Whitaker, 1990]
- Whitaker, William A., Programming Languages Overview, in Aerospace Software Engineering, Christine Anderson and Merlin Dorfman, ed., Washington; American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp. 353-362, 1990, ISBN 1-56347-005-5.
- [Williams, 1977]
- Williams, John H., and Fisher, David A., ed., Design and Implementation of Programming Languages - Proceedings of a DoD Sponsored Workshop, Ithaca, October 1976, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 54, Springer-Verlag, 1977.