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AdaIC NEWS Spring 1995:
Ada 95 Support

Ada Techniques

Taking the Lead

Ada 95 Resources


Ada Events

Introducing Ada 95

Software developers: looking for an Internationally Standardized Object- Oriented Programming (OOP) Language? Look no further.

Ada made history on February 15, 1995, when the International Standardization Organization (ISO) published the 1995 version of the Ada language in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO approval makes Ada 95 the first internationally standardized, fully object-oriented programming (OOP) language. Following the ISO publication, Ada 95 was adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an American standard and by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). Ada's adoption as an ISO, ANSI, and FIPS standard culminates an international process of unprecedented scale for a programming language. At the onset of the revision process, software developers made 750 recommendations to revise the language. Programming teams analyzed, prioritized, and responded to these recommendations through the four-year revision process. Every step of the way, computer experts world-wide provided reviews and comments.

"No other language has ever been created following written requirements refined by the world's best in computer programming and software development. Ada 95 is the culmination of these efforts, thereby delivering the most viable, cost-effective language for the development of long-term software solutions," said Chris Anderson, project manager for Ada 95 and co-editor of the revised standard reference manual.

The revision retains the inherent integrity and efficiency of Ada 83, as the first advanced building-block language to assemble a host of important features while adhering to the demands of modern software- engineering practice. In addition to OOP support, the Ada 95 provides more efficient real-time programming facilities while remaining fully portable, and addresses vital concerns for business such as the effective integration of legacy systems and upward compatibility.

New features include international character sets, improved generics (similar to C templates), and a set of changes that will reduce the time needed to recompile large systems. Ada 95, like Ada 83, is a strongly- typed language, with full support for encapsulation and information hiding. Increased functionality allows for support of smaller, more dynamic systems; unnecessary assumptions have been eliminated, existing features generalized, and special cases or restrictions have been removed.

"Ada has always been strong in object-oriented design and analysis. The revision builds on that strength with full support for OOP, along with the maintainability that makes it the most logical choice for safety- and business-critical applications," noted Chief Language Designer, S. Tucker Taft. "The primary reason for choosing Ada is still the bottom line - it's cheaper to build a reliable system in Ada than in any other language."

[This article was extracted from an Ada Resource Association press release, dated Feb. 15, 1995. For more information on the ARA, call 614/442-9232.]

Letter from the AJPO - Donald J. Reifer, Chief

"Now is the time to make a commitment and start moving forward into the 21st century. Here are some insights to help you make the transition."

This issue of the newsletter focuses on the launch of Ada 95. Thank you, Chris Anderson for a job well done!

The ISO's publication of the Ada 95 standard on Feb. 15 represents more than just five years of hard work for Chris and her team. It represents a major milestone for the Ada community: Ada is now the world's only internationally standardized, object-oriented programming language.

However, just having a standard isn't enough. We need to energize the community to utilize it. As many of you know, the AJPO has taken an aggressive posture towards making the launch of Ada 95 a success. We need your help, too - as you will hear in my summary, once I've told you what we are doing to pave the way towards success.

First, let's look at our launch and then discuss yours.

The Ada 95 Launch

As many of you have heard me say, when we launch Ada 95 we don't want to make the mistakes we made in the past. To avoid these, we have come up with a nine-part strategy - which is outlined in the table below.

We and the Vendors Are Ready to Support You

The message you should be getting is simple - Ada 95 is ready for use. The Ada vendors and AJPO have positioned themselves to support you. Now is the time to make a commitment and start moving forward into the 21st century.

The AJPO has a number of programs underway to partner with academia, industry, and defense organizations to stimulate commercialization and accelerate the movement towards Ada 95. As noted in the "Newsbits", we are seeking partners via our university grant programs - and via the Ada Technology Insertion Program (ATIP). We are also planning to partner with industry via cost-sharing arrangements later this year.

Many of the vendors have also prepared guidelines for making the transition. I would suggest you contact them for help as well especially in utilizing their products.

You Need to Start Making the Transition

However, making the transition to Ada 95 requires careful planning. Although upward compatible, the movement to the use of object-oriented techniques and other evolving software-engineering technologies requires considerable staging, training, and planning. A language like Ada 95 is nothing more than a toolkit that lets you tap the power of these new techniques. And you know what they said about a fool with a tool? (Still a fool.)

This version of the newsletter provides you with insights into how to make the transition.

You'll note the pointers I've given you on what we are doing to help you make the transition. (See the segment below for more.) Let me assure you that I did this on purpose - because I don't want you to wait. Many of us got burned in the mid-1980s because we rushed into Ada 83 and the infrastructure just wasn't there to support us. We took hits because the compilers were immature, and tools and bindings were not available. However, this is a different age. We have kept these mistakes in mind as we plotted and planned our Ada 95 launch. While I can assure you there still will be problems, hopefully they will be new ones and not be as severe as those we encountered the first time we launched Ada.

It's Now up to You to Make a Commitment

In summary, Ada 95 is here and ready for your use. In this newsletter, we've listed what's available and where to get it. I encourage you to try it. With the publication of the Ada 95 standard in February and its following acceptance as a FIPS, I believe the future for Ada has never been brighter. Let's keep the lights shining.

Donald J. Reifer, Chief Ada Joint Program Office Defense Information Systems Agency

Ada 95 Launch Strategy

  1. Ada 95 STANDARDS Get an International Standardization Organization (ISO) standard in place for the language. Get an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) in place to complete the triangle.

    STATUS: Accomplished; ISO/IEC 8652:1995; ANSI 8652:1995; FIPS 119-1

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See the "Ada 9X Update" in the previous issue, and check out the feature article of this newsletter - "Why Ada?".

  2. Ada 95 QUALITY COMPILER ENVIRONMENTS Make sure quality Ada 95 compilers are available for the 20% of the platforms that represent 80% of the market.

    STATUS: On the way

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See "Ada 95 Resources", for a summary of the first announcements of Ada 95 compilers - and GNAT is available as well.

  3. Ada 95 COMPILER VALIDATION Develop our Ada Compiler Validation Capability (ACVC) tests, and ready our five Ada Validation Facilities worldwide, so they can start validating compilers against the new standard in March 95. STATUS: Accomplished

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: The ACVC is available on the AdaIC Internet host. See AdaIC Online for information on accessing the host. The first of the anticipated many compilers to be validated is already in the queue.

  4. Ada 95 COMPILER EVALUATION Update our Ada Compiler Evaluation System (ACES) tests, and ready those Ada Validation Facilities that run it so they can start evaluating compiler performance in March 95.

    STATUS: The initial release with Ada 95 capabilities has been issued.

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: ACES is available on the AdaIC Internet host. See AdaIC Online for information on accessing the host.

  5. Ada 95 TOOLS AND BINDINGS Stimulate the development of Ada bindings and tools to accompany the launch of Ada 95 compilers especially for use on the desktop and workstations.

    STATUS: First releases becoming available.

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See "Ada95 Resources", and " NewsBits" .

  6. Ada 95 EDUCATION AND TRAINING Stimulate the availability of Ada 95 course offerings in the universities, high schools, Service schools, and in public seminar offerings.

    STATUS: Accomplished

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See "Ada 95 Training Available Now"; firms are offering Ada 95 courses publicly, and many universities are using courseware products on the ASSET reuse library and PAL as resources to update their offerings. In addition, the availability this fall of our affordable Ada 95 Academic compiler/textbook package will help stimulate students to try Ada.

  7. Ada 95 TRANSITION SUPPORT Provide guidelines for making the transition from Ada 83 or other languages to Ada 95.

    STATUS: Accomplished

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See " Making the Transition to Ada 95" for some of the guidelines being advanced for Ada 95.

  8. Ada 95 EARLY ADOPTER EXPERIENCES Get users to try the language prior to its launch to determine whether its features work.

    STATUS: Accomplished

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See the clips in this issue on the JAMES experience and on Screen Machine.

  9. Ada 95 PROMOTION Expand our outreach and stimulate increased and improved marketing of Ada's capabilities to the commercial sector.

    STATUS: Accomplished

    EXAMPLES IN THIS ISSUE: See the Calendar, for AdaIC conference participation. See AdaIC Online for information on accessing the AdaIC Internet host. The AdaIC now represents the industry at many non- Ada trade shows; also, we've put information on-line via our World Wide Web site; and the Ada Resources Association (formerly the Ada Software Alliance) has taken on the marketing challenge through ads, seminars, and direct marketing activities.

Ada Users throughout the World Tell Why Ada?

"If this monster was written in anything but Ada, I don't know how we'd take care of it." -- Ken James, General Supervisor, Weirton Steel Hot Mill

The "monster" in question is not a giant information system somewhere in the Department of Defense (DoD); it's not a weapons system, or anything that might be covered by the DoD's Ada mandate. It's not in some government agency, or defense contractor.

Nonetheless, the demands on this monster are as great as those on many weapons systems, and the consequences of failure will affect people immediately.

This "monster" is Weirton Steel, a sprawling steel mill in Weirton, W.V. It's an employee-owned company, and the economic health of the surrounding valley depends to a large extent on Weirton Steel. Ada was chosen for the software that runs Weirton because it works - because of the reliability of code written in Ada, because of the ease of modifying it to suit changed needs.

Ada Code Is Reliable

"...the software keeps running. It's capable of regenerating and going ahead." -- Bill Zickefoose, Weirton Steel, Process Automation Engineer

It was Ken James, General Supervisor of Weirton's Hot Mill, who referred to the Weirton system as a monster. "I don't get a lot of phone calls in the night," said Bill Zickefoose, process automation engineer. "Even though we have 24-hour coverage via beepers and things like that, we don't get very many calls. The reason we don't get a lot of calls is not because they're going to sit there with the mill down. It's because the software keeps running. It's capable of regenerating and going ahead."

Ada Code Is Reusable

For the air-traffic control system in Oslo, Norway, Ceselsa has achieved "close to 80% of reuse". -- Diego Macia, Ceselsa, ATC Systems Manager, International

The need for reliability is even more pressing for air-traffic control - highly distributed, real-time systems; but that absolute concern doesn't mean that people in air-traffic control ignore economics. In fact, the two work together in the case of reuse.

Ceselsa is working on air-traffic control centers all over Spain. "All the centers are totally interconnected and integrated," said Javier Ruano, Ceselsa's ATC System Manager for Spain, and "the software is 95% in Ada." Diego Macia, ATC Systems Manager, International, noted that they are also working on the air-traffic control system for Oslo, Norway. There they have achieved "close to 80% of reuse". And with other programs, they are reaching an even high percentage - with programs under development in Amsterdam, Bombay, New Dehli, Hong Kong, and Frankfurt.

The High Quality and Low Errors of Ada Code Give an Edge to the Little Guy

"I'd really find it hard to run this company without Ada." -- Peter Wannheden, co-founder, Paranor Software

One of Ada's virtues is that it makes it easy to integrate the work of large, scattered groups of programmers, working over long periods of time. But Ada works equally well for small companies working with tight deadlines - and gives them a competitive edge in competing with the big guys.

Paranor Software had only 15 people and five months to start from scratch and develop a pilot to compete against two large companies for a project of the post, telephone, and telegraph (PTT) administration in Switzerland. The PTT acts as a banking system as well as a phone and postal service, and it needed to computerize its financial records for a half-million customers.

Said Paranor's co-founder, Peter Wannheden, "One contributing factor may be that we convinced the customer that our methodology - our software methodology including the use of Ada - would guarantee a high-quality product."

And that has turned out to be true. "We've had a very, very low rate of errors which were determined after installation of the software," said Mr. Wannheden.

"I'd really find it hard to run this company without Ada. I don't know what we would have here."

Quality Compilers Are Available

"It had compilers of the quality which we absolutely must have to develop safe and essential systems." -- Vin Joag, Smiths Industries, FMV Software Manager

Ada's strengths are not merely in the software-engineering principles it supports, but that it's a standard. Users don't buy merely a language; they buy and use compilers. The process of validating compilers contributes to Ada's usefulness on the job.

For Vin Joag, FMV Software Manager for Smiths Industries, this was "one of the major reasons we selected Ada ... we found that the language is very defined. It had compilers of the quality which we absolutely must have to develop safe and essential systems."

Ada Code Is Portable

"The Ada has been written just once, and we're then using three different compilers."

-- Noel Wright, GEC Marconi Avionics, Engineering Manager

The Ada standard has also encouraged portability. When we think of portability, most of us probably think of using code on one platform successfully and then later porting it to another. At least one company, however, found themselves using the same code in the same project on three different processors.

The flight-control system for the Boeing 777 uses three different processors for redundancy.

"The Ada has been written just once," said Noel Wright, Engineering Manager at GEC Marconi Avionics, "and we're then using three different compilers. One of the big things of Ada was to make sure that you could actually port it around very easily."

Ada Supports Tasking

"Our application has a few hundred concurrent threads. ...there just isn't any good way to manage that, except Ada."

-- John Malcolmsen, JEOL, Assistant Manager/NMR Software R&D

Going from the skies down to the microscopic world, you'll find Ada doing jobs that can't be done otherwise.

This was the case for JEOL, the fifth-largest analytical-instrument company in the world. In one case, they're looking for the structure of protein molecules. This information is used in studying diabetes and other diseases.

"With Ada, we were able to build software that became intuitively obvious," said Bill Bearden, operations manager.

John Malcolmsen, assistant manager/NMR software R&D, pointed out that, "We needed to have tasking, and the only we way we were going to get tasking was to go with Ada. Some applications may have a few dozen concurrent threads; our application has a few hundred concurrent threads. And with that level of concurrency, there just isn't any good way to manage that, except Ada."

Ada Tasking Can Be Fun, Too

"Ada has been really the reason that you can make Paintball here." -- Dave McAllister, Silicon Graphics, Inc., Visual Magic Division, Enabling Technologies Program Manager

But neither Ada nor tasking has to be all work and no play. In fact, it can be a game - in this case, at Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI).

Dave McAllister, Enabling Technolgies PM at SGI's Visual Magic Division, explained Paintball:

"The basic premise of this was a multi-player, multi-tasking, virtual- reality game. We actually presented it to the rest of the engineering team here at SGI, and we were told ... that it was a great concept, but it would never work." That might have been a sound judgement - except for Ada.

"Ada has been really the reason that you can make Paintball here," according to Mr. McAllister. "Ada itself is the first language designed for multiple processing, and we're actually running on a system with four CPUs in it."

He pointed out that there are "anywhere from 200 to a thousand Ada tasks appearing, doing something inside the graphics".

And just as reuse worked with air-traffic control, it worked with games - and with a game quite different from Paintball. Fireflight is a "very different problem, a mission-planning scenario," said Mr. McAllister. But Fireflight "reused roughly 65% of the code we wrote for Paintball".

And Now We Get the Benefits of Ada 95

With the advent of Ada 95, additional benefits are on the way.

Bill Carlson, vice president/CTO of Intermetrics, Inc., said that "the main thing that has changed" since 1983 is the ready availability of compilers. "Today, anybody can get a good Ada compiler, and in fact, you can get one for free" - referring to the Ada 95 GNAT compiler available on the Internet.

Tucker Taft, Chief Language Designer for Ada 9X (Ada 95), pointed out that Ada 95 builds on Ada 83's excellence in handling "a large system where you had relatively well understood requirements and a very disciplined engineering process." Ada 95 continues that, "but it's also oriented towards, let's say the smaller system, the more dynamic system, the system where the requirements aren't as well defined in advance. I don't think you should think of Ada [95] as a new language. It's really Ada 83 - with some restrictions removed, some new features added, and basically sort of a more open feel."

Author John Barnes, in updating one of his books on Ada, offers that the "delightful" point is that "old difficulties have been cast aside" and he found himself on "much friendlier ground".

This article is based on a new video, "Ada - The Language for a Complex World". A 17-min. version was designed for CTOs and a 9-min. version for CEOs. A limited number of copies of the videotape are available through the AdaIC.

Ada 95-- Building on Strength

Many of the strengths of Ada 95 are based on the strengths of Ada 83 - one of which was strong typing.

According to Stuart Liroff, Engineering Manager at Silicon Graphics: "One of the reasons Ada 95 is so powerful is due to the strong typing, and the inheritance that it offers you from derived types." He noted that "the reason this is so important is because typing allows you to characterize the objects that you're modelling in your environment or your application. And Ada 95 has strong typing, much stronger typing than any of the other languages."

The result, said Mr. Liroff, is that "you'll find that with strong typing, you will get more correct and more true code out of your engineers."

Making the Transition to Ada 95

Change is seldom easy or instant; but in the case of moving to Ada 95, the benefits are worth the effort, and projects are already leading the way. Two important documents are available to help managers as they make the transition: the Ada 95 Adoption Handbook and the Ada 95 Transition Planning Guide.

The Handbook explains the opportunities, issues, and answers involved in adopting Ada 95; the Guide helps managers who have decided to adopt Ada 95 to create a detailed transition plan. Both the Handbook and the Guide are available in paper copy from the Ada Information Clearinghouse (AdaIC) and for downloading from the AdaIC's Internet host (sw-eng.falls-church.va.us).

These documents cover a wide range of topics - among them, issues related to project planning; tools and environments; upward compatibility; technology transfer; software-development methodologies; commercial off-the-shelf products, legacy software, and multi-language development; and the adoption process and personnel.

Adopt an Incremental Transition Strategy

In considering how to make the transition, the Planning Guide advises an incremental transition strategy - in which a few new Ada 95 features are introduced at first, and others are adopted later. This will enable managers to shorten the learning curve and lessen the impact on the project budget and schedule.

If a project adopts Ada 95 to exploit new technologies such as object- oriented programming, then learning to use those new technologies will be a major item contributing to the risk of cost and schedule impacts. These underlying technology shifts are present whenever one changes programming languages, however.

Write Ada-95-Compatible Code in Ada 83

One step in a transition can be to start writing Ada 95 code in Ada 83. (This is discussed in "How Can I ... Write Ada-95-Compatible Code in Ada 83?", following this article.) However, partially complete Ada 95 compilers are already available. While these compilers may not completely implement the full Ada 95 language, they are quite usable in several ways:

Ada compiler vendors have already released versions of their Ada 95 compilers. Many of these compilers process both Ada 83 and Ada 95 code and provide the user with a switch to choose the appropriate mode. A switch-selectable Ada 83/Ada 95 compiler will reduce the project's risk, since the project can use one tool to move back and forth from Ada 83 mode to Ada 95 mode until the project completely transitions to Ada 95.

Choose the Appropriate Ada 95 Compiler

Ada 95 compilers provide projects with new opportunities; however, these lead to new risks. To reduce the risk associated with using new Ada 95 compilers, managers, their development staffs, and/or their contractors must take steps to assess compiler maturity and usability on upcoming projects.

The most important techniques are:

Managers can use these techniques to determine whether it is too early, just right, or too late for their projects to adopt Ada 95.

Remember the Human Factors

Remember that people are involved in the adoption process. Any change can be difficult for an organization. Managers should make sure that the adoption of Ada 95 is a participatory process and that their software developers are prepared for and actively involved in the transition planning as well as implementation phases. While this may seem to be a "soft" issue compared with the availability of compilers or the performance of Ada run-time kernels, one of the most important lessons of previous technology adoptions is that the social and environmental changes are often the most important ones.

When transitioning from another language to Ada 95, the paradigm and mindset shifts are greater than they are when moving from Ada 83 to Ada 95. Each programming language brings with it a large collection of techniques and methods that reflect "how software ought to be built" using that language. Changing from one language to another is not as simple as switching from one make of automobile to another. Rather, it is more akin to switching from driving a car to piloting a jet.

Managers should take the following steps to make sure that their software developers successfully adopt the Ada 95 culture:

For Further Information

This article has only touched briefly on transition issues. Contact the AdaIC to get paper copies of the complete Ada 95 Adoption Handbook and Ada 95 Transition Planning Guide. Internet users may download both documents from the /public/AdaIC/docs directory on the AdaIC's Internet host (see below).

Is It Time for You to Transition to Ada 9x?


The AdaIC Online

More than 6,000 files, covering virtually every aspect of Ada , are available 24-hours a day on the AdaIC's Internet host: sw-eng.falls- church.va.us (IP address:

Dial-Up Access

Computer users who don't have Internet access can obtain Ada information on the AdaIC Internet host via our dial-up line. The phone number is: 703/681-2845. Set your communications parameters as follows:

Baud Rate:		300-28,800
Data bits:		8
Parity: 		None
Stop Bits: 		1
Flow Control: 		XON/XOFF
Terminal Emulation: 	VT100
Once a connection is achieved,
login:		guest
password:	Ada4sw-eng
If the "information superhighway" is new to you, don't hesitate to call the AdaIC at 1/800-AdaIC-11 (232-4211) or 703/681-2466 for help in getting connected. Or send e-mail to action@sw-eng.falls-church.va.us.

How Can I...Write Ada-95-Compatible Code Using Ada 83?

One step in an incremental transition to Ada 95 is to begin writing Ada- 95-compatible code in Ada 83. If you follow such a course of action, you may be interested in the Ada Compatability Guide (Version 6.0, 1 January 1995), a report by Bill Taylor. (The information in this article is taken from the Compatibility Guide; see below for information on obtaining a complete copy.)

The Compatibility Guide is aimed at developers currently writing or intending to write Ada applications where enhancement or maintenance is required beyond 1997 (when Ada 83 compilers will no longer continue to be validated). The Guide's purpose is to alert such projects to any upward incompatibilities between Ada 83 and Ada 95 - so that Ada 83 software can be written to avoid these incompatibilities long before transitioning to Ada 95.

The Guide includes a set of 12 guidelines for users to make their Ada 83 code upward compatible with Ada 95. The guidelines avoid all but the obscure incompatibilities, and are given below.

These guidelines do not seriously constrain the writing of code under Ada 83; some of them could be regarded as good style guidelines in any case.

Most Programs Will Be Unaffected

A major design goal in revising Ada was to avoid or at least minimize the need for modifying the existing base of Ada 83 software to make it compatible with Ada 95. This goal has largely been achieved; the revision has introduced 43 known incompatibilities - of which only six are likely to occur in a normal Ada program. Total upward compatibility would not have allowed the correction of certain problems - and certainly would not have allowed the enhancements needed to satisfy many of the revision requirements.

The great majority of Ada 83 programs will not be significantly affected by these changes, and the most likely incompatibilities will be automatically detected at compile-time. Moreover, tools are being developed to aid in the reliable detection of any problems and thereby smooth the process of transition. (For instance, see "Reports Available on Translating Ada 83 to Ada 9X", in the October (Fall) 1994 issue of this newsletter, and the related note on automatic translation accompanying this article.)

The Guide Has More Information

The guidelines, of course, serve only as an introduction to the discussions in the Guide. The Guide lists each of the upward incompatibilities, describing them in terms of the language change, a rationale for the change, a description and example of the incompatibility, an indication of how it can be avoided in existing Ada 83 programs, and the possibility of its automatic detection and removal.

As noted above, many of the proposed incompatibilities will not occur in normal programs - the Ada 83 semantics being known only to the most erudite of Ada programmers. Therefore, each incompatibility is classified according to how likely a normal Ada 83 program of a reasonable size would contain an occurrence of the incompatibility. Incompatibilities are also classified according to whether they cause illegalities at compile-time or different semantics at run-time.

Obtaining a Copy

Paper copies of the Compatibility Guide are available from the AdaIC. It can also be downloaded from the AdaIC's Internet host (sw-eng.falls-church.va.us).

The version of the Guide available on the Ada host corresponds to the International Standard version of the language, published in February 1995. The incompatibilities are presented in the order of the appropriate section of the Ada 83 Language Reference Manual (ANSI/MIL- STD-1815A, Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language, Department of Defense, January 1983).

Guidelines for Avoiding Problems in Transitioning from Ada 83 to Ada 95

The following is a set of rules for writing Ada 83 programs to avoid upward incompatibilities when transitioning to Ada 95. They are a simplified version of those described in the Guide and avoid all but the obscure incompatibilities.

(Incompatibilities referenced below are found in the Guide's "Detailed Descriptions" sections.)

  1. Do not use the following identifiers: (a) Abstract, Aliased, Protected, Requeue, Tagged, Until. (See Incompatibility 2.) (b) Wide_Character, Wide_String. (See Incompatibility 40.) (c) Ada, Interfaces. (See Incompatibility 43.)
  2. Do not apply a use-clause for package System.1 (See Incompatibility 36.)
  3. Do not apply a use-clause for package Text_Io2 nor for instantiations of package Sequential_Io. (See Incompatibilities 37 and 39.)
  4. Do not provide a body for a library package that does not require one.3 (See Incompatibility 28.)
  5. Add a distinctive comment4 to all generic formal private types that can be legally instantiated with indefinite subtypes.5 (See Incompatibility 31.)
  6. Place representation clauses for a real type immediately after the type declaration. (See Incompatibility 7.)
  7. Do not derive from a type in the package declaring the parent type. (See Incompatibility 4.)6
  8. Avoid use of the model-oriented attributes of real types. (See Incompatibility 10.)
  9. Allow for subtype Character to have 256 positions. (See Incompatibility 5.) And allow for character literals to be always visible. (See Incompatibility 25.)
  10. Avoid use of relational operators between character or string literals. (See Incompatibilities 6 and 13.)
  11. Do not assume too much about the state of the computation when exceptions are implicitly raised. Do not knowingly cause implicit exceptions to be raised. (See Incompatibilities 8, 14, 15, 17, 26, and 38.)
  12. Always handle Constraint_Error and Numeric_Error in the same exception handler. (See Incompatibility 29.)
  1. Alternatively, avoid using the following identifiers: Any_Priority, Bit_Order, Default_Bit_Order, Default_Priority, Interrupt_Priority, Max_Base_Digits, Max_Binary_Modulus, Max_Nonbinary_Modulus, Null_Address, Word_Size.
  2. Alternatively, avoid using the following identifiers: Current_Error, Decimal_Io, File_Access, Flush, Get_Immediate, Is_Open, Look_Ahead, Modular_Io, Set_Error, Standard_Error.
  3. Alternatively, place a pragma Elaborate_Body in the specification - this will be ignored in Ada 83 (unrecognized pragma) but will cause the body to be required (and hence be legal) in Ada 95.
  4. Such as _ ! (<>) in Ada 95.
  5. I.e., unconstrained subtypes without defaults.
  6. Alternatively, derive any new types before redefining any predefined operations on the parent type.

Automatic 83-TO-95 Translation

In addition to the Ada 83-Ada 95 compatibility strategy discussed here, remember the possibility of automating the translation of pre-existing code. The October 1994 issue of this newsletter discussed "Reports Available on Translating Ada 83 to Ada 9X". The AdaIC Internet host has these reports; the strategies discussed are used in a translation product available commercially from Xinotech, and the reports themselves can be used either in tracking incompatibilities or in writing your own translator. The reports are in files xltn-cmp.txt and xltn-phl.txt in the ../public/AdaIC/tools/atip subdirectory.

[Romel Rivera, Xinotech Research, Inc., Technology Center, Suite 213, 1313 Fifth Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55414; 800/379-3844, 612/379- 3844; e-mail: info@xinotech.com.]

Writing for 95 in 83 - It's Been Done without Trying!

The Global Command and Control System (GCCS) is an Early Ada 95 Adoption Effort. As a part of this, the GCCS team conducted a pilot effort to assess the upward compatibility of some existing Ada 83 code. This effort allowed the team to gain familiarity with Ada 95 and with the tools that they would use on the Airfields project.

For the trial, they selected an existing Ada 83 application called the Joint Automated Message Editing Systems (JAMES). The software consisted of approximately 48,000 lines of Ada code (counted as carriage returns) or approximately 14,000 Ada statements (";" count).

What the team found was that the existing software was 100% upward compatible. There were no changes needed because of the move to Ada 95.

One factor that may have contributed to this was the fact that the software had already been ported among several Ada 83 compilers, platforms, and operating systems; therefore, many implementation dependencies had already been removed.

Of course, "Your mileage may vary." Nonetheless, the JAMES experience is encouraging.

Dual-Use: Both Opportunities Available and Work to Be Done

"Unless we stay ahead of everybody else in our technology, others will learn that same technology, and use it against us."

-- Lt. Gen. Albert Edmonds, Director, D.I.S.A.

Representatives of the Ada community were eager to offer their input to the AJPO in two days packed with information and activity at the Second Ada Dual-Use Workshop, hosted by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).

The workshop was held February 6-8, 1995, in Tyson's Corner, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C.

Participants remembered the First Ada Dual-Use Workshop held in October of 1993, when their suggestions helped DISA formulate a detailed Ada Dual-Use Program Plan to encourage the use of Ada in the commercial sectors as well as in government. The 1995 workshop offered a valuable opportunity to review recent developments and provide even more direction for the Ada program.

The first day was devoted to reports on activities intended to meet the needs expressed by the first workshop. On the second day, participants took center stage - when they were asked to give their opinions and assessments. The workshop broke up into four tracks, with participants giving their statements to panels from government, academia, Ada vendors, and Ada users in industry.

Day One: Updates and Progress Reports

The first day kicked off with remarks by major decision-makers working with Ada. Lt Gen Albert Edmonds, Director of DISA, looked at Ada from the point of view of the warfighters who need dependable, adaptable software to support them. Diann McCoy, head of DISA's Center for Software, spoke of Ada within the CFSW. She was followed by retired admiral Harry Quast speaking about Ada in the commercial world, from his perspective as vice president of CACI, Inc. Don Reifer, Chief of the Ada Joint Program Office (AJPO) closed out the morning with an overview of DISA's Ada Dual-Use Initiative.

In the afternoon, attendees heard a series of detailed presentations on the particular aspects and projects of the five major thrusts of the Dual-Use Program: increase marketing; establish partnerships (with the academic, government, and industrial sectors); provide support and incentives; reinforce commitment; and maintain current AJPO activities. In addressing those five thrusts, eight speakers covered more than 20 efforts _ ranging from new publications for managers, to early Ada-95 development projects, to products available to the community at large.

Underneath all the details, two closely related themes could be heard: 1) there are opportunities available for the Ada community; and 2) your help is essential to Ada's success.

In some sense, Ada has always been a "dual-use" effort. It may have been a government venture, but it could never have gotten off the ground or survived without the efforts of people in the academic and commercial sectors. It has always been a cooperative venture.

The Workshop itself was evidence that DISA wanted ideas and suggestions, a need which Mr. Reifer noted explicitly in his remarks.

Day Two: Shaping the Future

If anything, the second day was even more packed than the first. After all, "attendees" weren't just "attending", they were participating. The four panels heard recommendations and ideas from all attendees.

Sifting through those recom-mendations is a major task, and the AJPO is still at work distilling them down to specific achievable options by track and by topic.

Especially encouraging to the AJPO was the number of people who commented that the suggestions they had in mind were already underway. Carrying on and expanding the current work, however, will take just that - work.

The opportunities, however, are considerable. With the publication of the Ada 95 standard, Ada is now the only internationally standardized object-oriented language available. A window of opportunity has opened for Ada, and the Dual-Use Workshop is just one step in taking advantage of the opportunities.

Just as the workshop sought the input of entire Ada community, the marketplace also offers opportunities for the entire community - whether government, academic, or commercial, whether vendors, developers, or end users.

The workshop is over, but the action is only beginning.

[What will be happening as a result of the Second Dual-Use Workshop? What will the AJPO be doing to implement the results? Look for a progress report in a future issue of the AdaIC News.]

Workshop On-Line

Slides presented at the Dual-Use Workshop give a quick snapshot of the Ada program, where it is, and the opportunities it has. These slides are available for downloading from the AdaIC Internet host (sw-eng.falls-church.va.us). See p. 7 for information on accessing the host.

Compiler Vendors Gearing up for Ada 95 First Ada Compilers Scheduled for Validation in May

Since the publication of the new Ada standard on February 15, 1995, nine major compiler vendors have made public statements regarding their plans to validate and market compilers under Ada 95.

Together, these nine vendors currently offer over 60% of the 839 currently validated Ada 83 compilers. Several companies have already provided press releases for and demonstrations of their compilers for Ada 95.

Over half of the vendors plan to make versions of their Ada 95 compilers available for beta testing.


Intermetrics, Inc.		Uncertain
733 Concord Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Bill Zimmerman
Phone:  617/661-1840
E-mail:   billz@inmet.com

OC Systems			Yes
9900 Lee Highway, Suite 270
Fairfax, VA  22030
Oliver E. Cole
Phone:  703/359-8160
E-mail:   info@ocsystems.com

Rational Software Corporation	Yes
1600 NW Compton Drive
Suite 357
Aloha, OR  97006
Sam Quiring
Phone:  503/690-1116, ext. 6732
E-mail:  shq@rational.com

R.R. Software, Inc.		Yes
P.O. Box 1512
Madison, WI  53701
Ian Goldberg
Phone:  608/251-3133
E-mail:   Rbrukardt@bix.com

Silicon Graphics		Yes
2011 North Shoreline Boulevard
Mountain View, CA  94043
Dave McAllister
Phone:  415/390-3238
E-mail:   davemc@sgi.com

Sun Microsystems, Inc.		Yes
Sun Pro, Inc.
2550 Garcia Avenue
MS:  UMPK03-205
Mountain View, CA  94043-1100
Carole Amos
Phone:  415/688-9424, 415/968-6396
E-mail:   carole.amos@eng.sun.com

Tartan, Inc.			No
300 Oxford Drive
Pittsburgh, PA  15146
Wayne Lieberman
Phone:  412/856-3600
E-mail:   lieberman@tartan.com

Thomson Software Products	Uncertain
10251 Vista Sorrento Parkway
Suite 300
San Diego, CA  02121
Karen Johnson
Phone:  619/457-2700
E-mail:   kjohnson@thomsoft.com

Unisys Corporation		No
506 Highway 85 North
Niceville, FL  32578
Joseph Kovach
Phone:  904/678-4217
In addition, the AdaIC has word that several more Ada-compiler vendors will enter the marketplace in May. Compiler vendors: please let us know if we should add you to the list!

Screen Machine at Work for Ada 95

Along with compiler vendors, tool vendors are also at work moving to Ada 95 - developing new products and enhancing current Ada-83 tools that are upward-compatible.

One example of the effort is Screen Machine, from Object Interface Systems (OIS). Screen Machine is a development environment for designing, prototyping, coding, testing, and maintaining user interfaces for Ada applications, and includes automatic generation of Ada source code.

In use with one of the DoD's Early Adopter projects, OIS ported Screen Machine to work with the GNAT Ada 95 compiler. The company is now working on the code generator so that the Ada code it produces will include Ada 95's new object-oriented features. A version for the public will be available after final testing.

Publications Available to Guide You in the Transition to Ada 95

The following documents, which provide Ada 95 programming and transition guidelines, are all available on the AdaIC's Internet host (sw-eng.falls-church.va.us).

Ada 95 Training Opportunities Available Now

To keep pace with the changing face of Ada, training companies are presenting a variety of opportunities to help bring you up to speed.

Hundreds of engineers and managers have already taken classes and seminars on Ada 95. Course offerings have provided instruction to meet a wide range of needs - including basic and advanced Ada 95 programming, Ada 95 development issues, and the transitioning from Ada 83 to Ada 95.

The table at left lists companies that have already presented courses or have completed course development and publicly announced availability. The list includes both regularly scheduled courses and courses that are available on request; with some, individuals can sign up for classes at the trainer's site; with most, the trainers will take the course to the workplace.

Additionally, many companies have Ada 95 courses in development or are prepared to develop courses to meet client needs.

For a complete list of available opportunities, check out the AdaIC's "Classes and Seminars" flyer (E52); it has information on courses for both Ada 83 and Ada 95, and it can be ordered from the AdaIC or downloaded from the AdaIC host computer sw-eng.falls-church.va.us) on the Internet.

Vendors: Please let us know if your company should be added to the list!

Ada training opportunities currently being presented or immediately available upon request:

ABS (S/W) Absolute Software	Introduction to Ada 95 Programming 
Company, Inc.			Advanced Ada 95 Programming
4593 Orchid Drive		Ada 95 for Ada 83 Programmers
Los Angeles, CA  90043-3230	Real-Time Design and Programming
Edward Colbert, President
Phone:  213/293-0783
Fax:  213/293-6720

AdaWorks			Ada 95: An Introduction and Workshop
2555 Park Boulevard, Suite 27	Ada 83 and Ada 95 - Transition Package
Palo Alto, CA  94303		Ada 95 for Information Systems
Richard Riehle			Ada 95 for Real-Time/Embedded Systems
Software Engineering
Phone:  415/328-1815
Fax:  415/328-1112

Brosgol Consulting 		Programming in Ada 95
and Training			Information Systems Programming in Ada 95
79 Tobey Road			Programming in Ada 95: An In-depth Course
Belmont, MA 02178
Dr. Benjamin M. Brosgol
Phone:  617/489-4027
Fax:  617/489-4009

CACI				Understanding Ada 95
1600 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria, VA  22311-1794
Brad Balfour
Phone:  703/824-4505, 703/931-7323
Fax:  703/931-6530

EVB Software Engineering, Inc.	Ada 95 Development Issues
5320 Spectrum Drive
Frederick, MD  217015320 
Jessica Dancy
Phone:  301/695-6960, 800/877-1815
Fax:  301/695-7734

Fastrak Training, Inc.		Upgrading to Ada 95
Quarry Park Place, Suite 300
9175 Guilford Road
Columbia, MD  21046-1844
Dave Anderson
Phone:  800/488-2321, 301/924-0050
Fax:  301/924-3049

Learning Tree International	Ada Programming and Software Engineering:
1805 Library Street			Hands-on Introduction
Reston, VA  22090
Dr. Alan B. Salisbury
Phone:  703/709-9119
Fax:  703/471-4732

Telos				Introduction to Ada 95
Telos Consulting Services	Fundamental Ada 95
Suite 203			Advanced Ada 95
5526 North Academy Boulevard
Colorado Springs, CO  80918
Gentry Gardner
Phone:  800/TELOS-OK, 719/260-1333
Fax:  719/260-0022

Thomson Software Products	An Introduction to the Ada Language and Culture
67 South Bedford Street		Real-Time Programming in Ada
Burlington, MA  01803		Programming in Ada 95
Annemarie Rollins		Information Systems Programming in Ada 95
Phone:  617/270-0030		Programming in Ada 95: An In-Depth Course
Fax:  617/270-6882		Ada 95 for COBOL Programmers

York Software 			Ada for Real-Time Systems Design
Engineering, Ltd.
University of York
Heslington Y01 5DD York-UK
Ronald Pierce
Phone:  +44 1904 433741
Fax:  +44 1904 433744


These newsbits have been extracted from the AdaIC's "Newsflashes"- a regular feature that is sent out electronically on a weekly basis. To be added to the distribution list, please send e-mail to: adanews@sw-eng.falls-church.va.us

Lovelace: an Ada 95 Tutorial on the Web

A free on-line tutorial for Ada 95 has just been released. Called Lovelace, it is available for use on the Internet. Besides access to the Internet, all that is required is a World Wide Web (WWW) viewer - such as Mosaic or Netscape.

Lovelace explains the basics of the Ada programming language. It assumes that you have had some exposure to some other algorithmic programming language (such as Pascal, C, C++, or FORTRAN). Lovelace teaches the latest version of Ada, Ada 95 (Ada 9X); it notes differences where they occur with Ada 83.

To use Lovelace, start your WWW viewer and "open" the following URL: http://www.dwheeler.com/lovelace/lovelace.htm Lovelace was developed by David A. Wheeler on a volunteer basis. Comments & suggestions are welcome, as are volunteers who would like to expand it.

[David A. Wheeler; 703/845-6662; e-mail: wheeler@ida.org.]

HOT_Ada: Self-Paced Ada 95 Course for Mac or Windows

The "Hypertext course in Object Technology and Ada 95" is a two-volume course/tutorial, distributed on floppy disks, and designed for individual, self-paced learning. Vol. 1, the "core", provides a pictorial introduction to object technology (oject-oriented analysis and design presented in a language-independent manner) and a pictorial introduction to Ada 95, with emphasis on its object-oriented programming features. Vol. 2 provides an extended case study with a step-by-step illustration of the OOA, OOD and OOP concepts outlined in Vol. 1. A mixture of classification and composition approaches is illustrated. Hypertext and hypergraphic features allow, for example, clicking on a "hot word" to see its definition in the Glossary, or on a "hot icon" in a diagram to jump to Ada source code. (2-vol. set: $49; vol. 1 or 2 alone: $29; US check or Visa/MC full info; specify Macintosh or PC with Windows.)

The developer is seeking "domain experts" interested in co-authoring future members of a family of courses.

[Bard S. Crawford, Stage Harbor Software, 9 Patriots Drive, Lexington, MA 02173; e-mail: bscrawford@aol.com]

DISA Working on New Ada Curriculum-Development Effort

The Defense Information Systems Agency, Center for Software (DISA/CFS) and the Software Management Department have announced their intent to conduct a multi-year program to support development of undergraduate and graduate courses in Ada and software engineering.

Of particular interest is the development of curricula that focus on the effective use of Ada in traditional computer-science, business, engineering, information-management, and related curricula - as well as programs that emphasize the use of features of Ada 95 to encourage better software engineering and software reuse.

The program will be comparable to previous efforts supported by the Ada Joint Program Office (AJPO) in which educators have been awarded contracts for developing courseware. (Courseware is currently available over the Internet. See p. 7 for information on accessing the AdaIC Internet host.)

It is expected that a project's results will be integrated into the institution's academic program and taught within the period of the award or in the immediately following academic term.

Among new elements involved in evaluation of proposals, will be a course's ability to accelerate commercial use of Ada. Also, 20% of the funds in the program will be set aside for participation from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). As in the past, proposals will be accepted only from U.S. degree-granting institutions.

A detailed Proposer Information Pamphlet is available. The official notice will be published in a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) in the government's Commerce Business Daily (CBD).

A copy of the information pamphlet will be available for downloading from the AdaIC's Internet host. (Contact the AdaIC for details.)

Academic Compiler/Textbook Package for Ada 95

Students with PCs and PowerPCs are going to be be able to get a full Ada 95 compiler with textbook - at a price competitive with comparable software packages that teach C/C++, Pascal, and other languages.

With general availability set for the first quarter of next year, Academic AdaMagic will be a version of Intermetrics, Inc.'s full Ada 95 compiler and development environment. It will be packaged with an introductory computer-science textbook for Ada 95, Ada Problem Solving & Program Design, by Michael Feldman and E.B. Koffman.

AdaMagic will be offered on CD-ROM for PCs ('386, '486, or Pentium) running Windows and PowerPCs running Macintosh system.

Development was sponsored in part by the Ada Joint Program Office, and the academic version will be for educational use only. However, Intermetrics will also distribute a Professional version on the same platforms.

[Intermetrics, Inc., 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138; 617/661- 1840]

Rational Announces Support for Ada 95

Right on the heels of ISO publication of the Ada 95 standard, Rational Software Corporation announced plans to support the new standard. "Ada - already the best technical and economic solution - just got better with Ada 95," said Gerard J. Rudisin, vice president of marketing at Rational.

The company reported that it would be extending its suite of software- engineering tools. Ada 95 support will be added incrementally as part of a series of upgrades to the Rational product line. Full support for the Ada 95 standard is expected by the end of the year. "Ada 95 fits well with Rational's extensive experience in object-oriented technology, real-time embedded systems, and iterative development," Mr. Rudisin said. "Rational is committed to providing full Ada 95 support across our entire product line."

In addition, Rational will continue to support Ada 83 as long as customers require it. The company will also offer an extensive set of tools to help Ada 83 customers make the transition to the new Ada 95 standard.

[Rational Software Corporation, 2800 San Tomas Expressway, Santa Clara, CA 95051-0951; 408/496-3600 or 800-RAT-1212, fax: 408/496-3636; e-mail: product_info@rational.com]

Thomson (ALSYS) Announces Ada 95 Support

Thomson Software Products (formerly Alsys) has announced that it is "committed to supporting the full Ada 95 standard for all ObjectAda products for native and cross development". The company said that "Ada 95 builds on Ada 83's already solid foundation in real-time, mission- critical, and embedded applications development." Ada 95's "improved capabilities and significant additional features ... will broaden Ada's appeal for both defense and commercial-related development where stability, reliability and portability are key factors for success."

[Thomson Software Products, Karen Johnson, 10251 Vista Sorrento Parkway - Suite 300, San Diego, CA 92121; 619/457-2700, fax: 619/452-2117]

Russians Working on ASIS for GNAT

A team at Moscow State University is working on the Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS). The project is aimed at the development of a prototype implementation of the tool interface for the GNAT Ada 95 compiler. The implementation will be written in Ada 95, and GNAT will be used as the compiler.

The project was initiated by Prof. Alfred Strohmeier from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, and is funded by the Swiss EST programme. A first prototype should be available in November 1995.

They are now in the detailed design stage, and planning to deal with:

[Dr. Sergey Rybin (rybin@alex.srcc.msu.su); Eugene Zueff (zueff@such.srcc.msu.su)]

Ada Book on the Internet

Ada in Action (with Practical Programming Examples), by Do-While Jones is now on the Internet. The book demonstrates the skills and techniques that make programmers more productive, and can be downloaded using anonymous ftp. It's on the host owens.ridgecrest.ca.us, and can be found in the directory


[Do-While Jones; e-mail: do_while@owens.ridgecrest.ca.us]

AJPO Progress Report Available

The Ada Joint Program Office (AJPO) has just released its FY94 Progress Report. It details the AJPO's successes, goals, objectives, and future strategies. To obtain a copy of the report. contact the AdaIC.

[AdaIC, P.O. Box 1866, Falls Church, VA 22041; 1-800-Ada-IC11 (232- 4211); e-mail: adainfo@sw-eng.falls-church.va.us.]

Ada Can Be Fun Too!

Paintball and Fireflight are two virtual-reality games developed by Silicon Graphics as internal pilot training projects (not available commercially).

According to the company, the programs "reached new levels in depth and complexity possible only through the ... language capabilities" of Ada. Paintball is a multi-player, multi-tasking simulation written in MP/Ada for both military and commercial part task applications. Created entirely in Ada tasking, Paintball "marked a new level of integration between real-time interaction and virtual simulation". Interfacing with Silicon Graphics' IRIS Performer database, Paintball demonstrates previously unseen capabilities for the visual-simulation market. Fireflight is a mission-planning scenario that uses roughly 65% of the Paintball code. By mapping raw satellite data in real-time, Fireflight enables the user to "fight" a forest fire by flying over a simulation of Yellowstone National Park.

Both games work with the Silicon Graphics Onyx RealityEngine2 graphics supercomputer using multiple processors, with a range of 200 to 1,000 tasks driving the real-time graphics. "By pushing the limits of the Ada environment," the company said it had "demonstrated that tasking is a powerful construct that no other language offers. Likewise, having ported Paintball to Ada 95, Silicon Graphics has proven the power of the object-oriented extensions of this language."

Ada Events Calendar

The Ada Calendar is available for downloading from our Internet host, accessible via ftp, Gopher, and the World-Wide Web. You can also call the AdaIC for further information on the following Ada conferences, seminars, and workshops. Please let us know if your organization is sponsoring an Ada event!

April 24-27, 1995
COMDEX/Spring '95*
Georgia World Congress Center
Atlanta, Georgia
POC : Julie Tisch
The Interface Group 
300 First Avenue
Needham, MA  02194
Tel: 617/449-6600

 April 24-28, 1995
17th International Conference on Software Engineering
Seattle, Washington
POC : David Norman 
Dept of Computer Science & Engineering
Siege Hall 114 
University of Washington
Seattle, WA  98195
Tel: 908/582-7550

June 6-9, 1995
ASEET Symposium
Ada 95 Courseware and Tools: Educating Software Engineers 
for the 21st Century
Morgantown, West Virginia
POC for local information:  
Prof. Francis Van Scoy
West Virginia University
Tel: 304/293-3607 x518
E-mail:  vanscoy@cs.wvu.edu
POC for general information:
Capt David Cook
USAF Academy
Tel: 719/472-3131
E-mail  dcook@kirk.usafa.af.mil

June 26-30, 1995
Washington Ada Symposium (WAdaS)
McLean Hilton, Tyson's Corner, VA
POC:  Danieli & O'Keefe Associates, Inc. 
Chiswick Park
Sudbury, MA  01766
Tel: 800/833-7751
Fax:  508/443-4715

August 15-17, 1995
Object World - San Francisco*
Moscone  Convention Center
San Francisco, California
POC: Kim Martin
IDG World Expo Corporation
111 Speen Street
Framingham, MA  01701
Tel: 508/ 820-8921
Fax:  508/872-8237

October 2-6, 1995
Ada in Europe 1995
Frankfurt, Germany
POC:  Rosey Plett or Claire Gulley
Eurospace, 16 bis avenue Bosquet 
75007 Paris, France
Tel:  +33 1 45 55 83 53
Fax:  +33 1 45 51 99  23

October 9-12, 1995
Ada UK Conference
Kensington, London, UK
POC : Helen Byard
Ada Language UK Ltd. 
P.O. Box 322
Y01 3GY York-UK
Tel:  +44 1904 412740
Fax: +44 1904 426702

November 5-10, 1995
TRI-Ada '95*
Anaheim, California
POC:  Danieli & O'Keefe Associates, Inc.
Chiswick Park
Sudbury, MA  01766
Tel: 800/833-7751
Fax: 508/443-4715

*The AdaIC will have an exhibit. We sometimes have free 
passes to conference exhibit areas where the AdaIC will have 
an exhibit. Feel free to call and ask for available passes.

Report of a product, service, or event is for information purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the Ada Information Clearinghouse.