Ada was designed to support the development of high-quality, reliable, reusable, and portable software. For a number of reasons, no programming language can ensure the achievement of these desirable objectives on its own. For example, programming must be embedded in a disciplined development process that addresses requirements analysis, design, implementation, verification, validation, and maintenance in an organized way. The use of the language must conform to good programming practices based on well established software engineering principles. This book is intended to help bridge the gap between these principles and the actual practice of programming in Ada.
Clear, readable, understandable source text eases program evolution, adaptation, and maintenance. First, such source text is more likely to be correct and reliable. Second, effective code adaptation is a prerequisite to code reuse, a technique that has the potential for drastic reductions in system development cost. Easy adaptation requires a thorough understanding of the software; this is considerably facilitated by clarity. Finally, since maintenance (really evolution) is a costly process that continues throughout the life of a system, clarity plays a major role in keeping maintenance costs down. Over the entire life cycle, code has to be read and understood far more often than it is written; the investment of writing readable, understandable code is thus well worthwhile. Many of the guidelines in this book are designed to promote clear source text.
There are two main aspects of code clarity: 1) Careful and consistent layout of the source text on the page or the screen can enhance readability dramatically; 2) Careful attention to the structure of code can make it easier to understand. This is true both on the small scale (e.g., by careful choice of identifier names or by disciplined use of loops) and on the large scale (e.g., by proper use of packages). These guidelines treat both layout and structure.
Comments in source text are a controversial issue. There are arguments both for and against the view that comments enhance readability. The biggest problem with comments in practice is that people often fail to update them when the associated source text is changed, thereby making the commentary misleading. Commentary should be reserved for expressing needed information that cannot be expressed in code and highlighting cases where there are overriding reasons to violate one of the guidelines. If possible, source text should use self-explanatory names for objects and program units; and it should use simple, understandable program structures so that little additional commentary is needed. The extra effort in selecting (and entering) appropriate names and the extra thought needed to design clean and understandable program structures are fully justified.
Programming texts often fail to discuss overall program structure; Chapter 4 addresses this. The majority of the guidelines in that chapter are concerned with the application of sound software engineering principles such as information hiding and separation of concerns. The chapter is neither a textbook on nor an introduction to these principles; rather, it indicates how they can be realized using the features of Ada.
A number of other guidelines are particularly concerned with reliability and portability issues. They counsel avoidance of language features and programming practices that either depend on properties not defined in Ada or on properties that may vary from implementation to implementation. Some of these guidelines, such as the one forbidding dependence on expression evaluation order, should never be violated. Others may have to be violated in special situations such as interfacing to other systems. This should only be done after careful deliberation, and such violations should be prominently indicated. Performance constraints are often offered as an excuse for unsafe programming practices; this is rarely a sufficient justification.
Software tools could be used to enforce, encourage, or check conformance to many of the guidelines. At present, such tools for Ada primarily consist of code formatters or syntax directed editors. Existing code formatters are often parameterizable and can be instantiated to lay out code in a way consistent with many of the guidelines in this book.
This book is intended for those involved in the actual development of software systems written in Ada. The following subsections discuss how to make the most effective use of the material presented. Readers with different levels of Ada experience and different roles in a software project will need to use the book in different ways. Specific comments to three broad categories of software development personnel are addressed: inexperienced Ada programmers, experienced Ada programmers, and software development managers.
In this chapter...
1.1 How To Use This Book
1.2 To The New Ada Programmer
1.3 To The Experienced Ada Programmer
1.4 To The Software Project Manager
1.5 To Contracting Agencies And Standards Organizations