The Ada 95 Adoption Handbook provides a comprehensive guide to
help Program Executive Officers (PEOs) and Program Managers (PMs) understand
and implement the transition to Ada 95.
Ada 95 is an incremental improvement of the Ada 83 (ANSI/MIL-STD-
1815A) programming language. It is neither a new language nor some radical
redesign. Ada 95 adds support for object-oriented programming, improved real-
time capabilities, enhanced support for programming-in-the-large and an
improved ability to work with programs written in other languages.
Additionally, Ada 95 provides specialized needs annexes that define additional
services for areas such as systems programming, real-time systems, distributed
systems and information systems.
PEOs and PMs are the handbook's primary audiences. Key points appear in
bold italic type in tables. PEOs and PMs will also find enough
supplemental information to be able to task their staffs with implementing the
activities described in the handbook.
The Ada 95 Adoption Handbook explains the opportunities, issues and
answers inherent in the adoption of Ada 95 for software development and
maintenance. The handbook covers issues in both Management Information Systems
and Real-Time/Embedded Systems, and addresses both contracted and in-house
Once the decision to adopt Ada 95 has been made, the
Ada 95 Transition Planning Guide,
a companion to this handbook, helps managers create a
transition plan tailored for their project.
Ada 95 adoption should occur at times of maximum project stability (e.g.,
at the beginning of a new development or maintenance effort). PEOs and PMs
will find that the majority of information in the Ada 95 Adoption Handbook is
relevant for projects in these stages of development. The handbook can help
the staff of projects in other stages of development prepare for the
After determining that the timing is right, the PEO and/or PM should begin the
transition to Ada 95. The handbook provides detailed information that PEOs
and PMs can use to guide staffs who are working on Ada 95 adoption. Also, Appendix B provides template text on Request for Proposal
(RFPs). The checklists in Appendixes C and D summarize the actions that PEOs and PMs should take when
considering Ada 95 adoption.
Adopting Ada 95 brings organizations the opportunity to improve the efficiency
of developers by reducing the amount of source code recompilation caused by
software changes; by incrementally extending existing software rather than
modifying existing code; and by allowing better usage of limited hardware
resources by the use of more efficient real-time facilities. Finally, Ada 95
allows projects to make use of existing legacy code and reusable software
written in languages other than Ada more easily than does Ada 83.
Risks and Risk Mitigation
No opportunity comes without risk, and Ada 95 is no exception. However, risk
mitigation techniques are available to overcome the risks inherent in this new
technology. This handbook not only alerts PEOs and PMs to the risks they will
face when transitioning to Ada 95, but it also tells then how to accommodate
or overcome these risks. Chapter 3
discusses specific risk mitigation actions that PEOs and PMs can take to
reduce Ada 95 adoption risks.
Timing of the Adoption
The lowest risk Ada 95 adoption occurs in concert with the beginning of a
project or maintenance upgrade. For acquisition organizations, this also
provides the most control and least rework. Chapter
4 discusses the impacts of beginning the Ada 95 adoption at different
phases in the acquisition and development life-cycles.
Impact on the Acquisition Process
Very few acquisition activities need to change with the adoption of Ada 95.
Typically, the acquisition plan must be tailored to reflect the use of Ada 95
and the source selection organization must include Ada 95 expertise. Chapter 5 discusses the impacts of Ada 95 adoption on the
software acquisition and development process.
The information in this document is based upon the author's experience of
participating in Ada 83 and (preliminary) Ada 95 adoption efforts.
Preliminary versions of the handbook have been reviewed by Government and
Industry reviewers in a multi-step review process. Their comments have been
incorporated into this version of the document. This is a living document,
a working guide for PEOs and PMs and as such will be continuously revised
based on the experiences of Ada 95 adoption efforts. Additional comments and suggestions are welcome.
- Why Adopt Ada 95?
- Summary of Adoption Issues
- What is Ada 95?
- Why Was Ada 95 Developed?
- Why Use Ada 95 Over Ada 83?
- Why Use Ada 95 Over Language X?
Ada 95 Provides New and Unique Features
Moving from Procedural Languages: FORTRAN, C, COBOL,
JOVIAL, CMS-2, ETC.
Choosing among Object-Oriented Languages: Ada 95,
C++, Smalltalk, etc.
Using with 4GLs: DBase, Focus, etc.
- Trial Ada 95 Technology Available?
- Stability of the Ada 95 Definition
- DOD's Policy on Ada 95
- Early Results of Using Ada 95
- Support for Migration Systems and Multi-Language Development
- Table 1: Key Management Benefits in the Switch to Ada 95
- Table 2: Key Technology Reasons to Switch to Ada 95
- Table 3: Benefits of Using the New Features of Ada 95 in Various Systems
- Table 4: Comparison of the OOP Features of Ada 95 and Popular OOPLs
- Table 5: Example of Some Support Tools and Their Availability (as of Spring 1995)
- Table 6: Balancing the Issues of Adopting Ada 95 Too Early and Too Late
- Table 7: Risk of Adopting Ada 95 during Different Procurement Phases
- Table 8: Risk of Adopting Ada 95 during Different Development Phases
- Figure 1: The Incremental Nature of Ada 95 -- Ada 83 Plus Enhancements
- Figure 2: Early Use of Ada 9X Memorandum
- Figure 3: Risk management Technique Definitions