The Ada 95 Adoption Handbook was developed to help organizations
exploit the opportunities that Ada 95 brings. It covers opportunities,
issues, risks and decisions to be addressed when a project or organization is
preparing to adopt Ada 95 -- the latest version of the Ada language. It offers
an issues-based and answers-oriented look at the task of transitioning
software development efforts. It builds on past experiences and focuses on
achieving results. Suggested Ada 95 adoption efforts may include the
following kinds of systems:
This handbook covers all elements of the decision-making process -- from the
initial Ada 95 investigation through research of the issues, to analysis and
mitigation of the risks. However, the detailed planning of the transition to
Ada 95 for a specific effort is beyond the scope of this handbook.
The Ada 95 Transition Planning Guide,
a companion document to this handbook, provides a template for planning a specific
- A new software development project,
- A family of related development efforts,
- Enhancements to an existing system, or
- Maintenance of an existing system.
The Ada 95 Adoption Handbook's primary audiences are Department of
Defense (DOD) Program Executive Officers (PEOs) and Program Managers (PMs) who
manage software development and maintenance efforts. Within the DOD, PEOs and
PMs may be responsible for either the acquisition or the internal life-cycle
development of software; this document addresses both scenarios. These
managers must decide when, under what circumstances, and how to transition to
The information of significant interest to PEOs and PMs is highlighted in
bold italic type and found in tables throughout the chapters.
PEOs and PMs will also find enough supplemental information to be able to task
their staff with implementing the activities described in the handbook.
The handbook discusses the needs of managers of weapons systems and
managers of information systems. Most sections of the handbook address
issues common to both audiences. When issues differ, separate subsections of
the handbook will give audience-specific information.
A secondary audience may find the handbook useful: software project managers
from industry who are interested in transitioning to Ada 95. Industry users
will find subsections addressed to their needs, where appropriate.
The handbook assumes that readers possess an understanding of project
management and software development, as defined below.
No prior experience with Ada or object-oriented techniques is expected, as the
- Familiarity with project management concepts, software project management,
and basic software engineering principles.
- General familiarity with modern software development trends and concepts
(software development methodologies, software development life-cycles,
software development standards, software re-engineering, etc.).
- No prior experience in Ada 83 project management is assumed. If any
specific project management information on Ada 83 is necessary, either it will
be provided in the handbook or the reader will be referred to the appropriate
- No detailed knowledge of Ada 83 is assumed. General Ada 83
programming language terminology (e.g., subprogram and package) is used. If
any specific technical information on Ada 83 is necessary, either it will be
provided in the handbook or the reader will be referred to the appropriate
- No detailed knowledge of Ada 95 is assumed. New Ada 95 programming
language terminology and concepts are introduced and related to Ada 83
concepts (e.g., child packages and packages). If any specific technical
information on Ada 95 is necessary, either it will be provided in the handbook
or the reader will be referred to the appropriate document.
- No detailed knowledge of object-oriented techniques is assumed.
Basic object-oriented benefits and features are referenced within the
document. If any specific technical information on object-oriented technology
is necessary, either it will be provided in the handbook or the reader will be
referred to the appropriate document.
- No detailed knowledge of real-time techniques is assumed. Basic
real-time concepts and features are referenced within the document. If any
specific technical information on real-time technology is necessary, either it
will be provided in the handbook or the reader will be referred to the
The primary goal of this handbook is to help managers take advantage of the
opportunities presented by Ada 95. The handbook also addresses key issues in
adopting Ada 95 on projects, products and product lines. The most crucial
needs of managers preparing to adopt Ada 95 are:
To this end, the handbook focuses on the issues and answers that are foremost
in a PEO's or PM's mind during the early stages of Ada 95 adoption.
- To get answers to the issues associated with adopting Ada 95,
- To be able to minimize the risks associated with the adoption of Ada 95,
- To be able to successfully manage the transition to Ada 95 within their
To meet the goals of this handbook, its chapters will:
- Describe the reasons that PEOs and PMs may want to adopt Ada 95,
- Address both contracted and in-house development efforts,
- Answer the most frequent questions from managers preparing to transition
to Ada 95 from either Ada 83 or another language,
- Identify the main issues that occur when transitioning to the use of Ada
- Analyze the risks associated with a transition to the use of Ada 95,
- Discuss strategies that managers can employ to mitigate Ada 95 adoption
risks, thereby making the transition as smooth as possible, and
- Supply supplementary information in appendixes, including contacts and
sources of information on Ada 95 as well as detailed supplementary material on
specific recommended RFP wording and checklists for Ada 95 adoption.
PEOs and PMs may find two other documents useful in their Ada 95 adoption
Next Chapter - Why Adopt Ada
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